清洁财富的污浊秘密,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费

原标题:【国际】泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外开销

本期原作选自The Economist 2017-0二-25的小说Clean energy’s dirty
secret,释义来自耶路撒冷希伯来高阶柒版、有道词典等财富。要是您也在求学The
Economist,欢迎订阅笔者的文集The
Economist,一起上学交换。

翻译按:任何多少个行业的革命都会惨遭既有势力的阻拦。读完本文,你将领悟到净化财富为什么无法立即取代旧能源的多少个原因,以及大概的解决方案——政坛的出席和调节。
本文译自《管农学人》4月七日刊。

By ANGUS McNEICE | China Daily | Updated: 2017-10-05 17:44

泰国老董起草的新法规须要向使用区块链技术的电力生产商收取额外国资本费。

Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables【1】 revolution is wrecking【2】 the
world’s electricity markets. Here’s what to do

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Solar power projects, such as this one shaped like giant pandas in
Datong, Shanxi province, are now a common sight.

据《日经新闻澳国评价》报纸发表,暹罗发电局(EGAT)渴求开发那笔支出作为区块链技术带来的地下影响的津贴。

【一】renewables 可再生财富

农学人封面

明日,类似于图中的山东益阳的大白熊形状的太阳能发电项目曾经很广阔了。

ERC成员Viraphol Jirapraditkul表示:

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Clean energy’s dirty secret

The renewables revolution is wrecking the world’s electricity markets.
Here’s what to do

  1. ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells and wind turbines
    were invented, they still generate only 7% of the world’s
    electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
    peripheral to
    the energy system just over a decade ago, they are
    now growing faster than any other energy source and their falling
    costs are making them competitive with fossil fuels. BP, an oil
    firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
    energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer far-fetched
    to think
    that the world is entering an era of clean, unlimited and
    cheap power. About time, too.

being peripheral to: not as important as other things or people in
a particular activity, idea, or situation
e.g. The romance is peripheral to the main plot of the movie.
competitive: as good as or better than others
far-fetched: extremely unlikely to be true or to happen
e.g. The whole story sounds very far-fetched.

1)光伏电池和风涡轮机表达大致150年后,他们依然只爆发世界7%的电力。但是,一些值得注意的作业正在产生。十几年前还处于能源系统的外围,它们以往的增速超越任何其余财富,它们下落的本钱使其和化石燃料一样有竞争力
BP,一家原油公司,测度可再生能源将占以往20年全球财富供应拉长的4/8。世界正在进入1个卫生,Infiniti和优惠电力的时代不再是疑虑的。也是时刻难点。

  1. There is a 20trn dollars hitch, though. To get from here to
    there requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades,
    to replace old smog-belching power plants and to upgrade the
    pylons and wires that bring electricity to consumers. Normally
    investors like putting their money into electricity because it
    offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
    more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
    source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
    future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
    need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
    market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

hitch: a small problem that makes something difficult or delays it
for a short time
e.g. In spite of some technical hitches, the first program was a
success.
e.g. The whole show went without a hitch .

二)可是,有1个20万亿澳元的小问题。从明日到今后须求在未来几10年多量的投资,以代替旧的喷出气团雾的发电厂和擢升给买主带来电的电缆塔和电线。经常投资者喜欢把钱投入电力,因为它提供保障的回报。然则,血红能源有一个龌龊的机密。它配置得越多,它就会让来自别的来源的电力价格下降越来越多。那使得通向无碳的前途的衔接难以决定,在那中间,借使要让灯继续发光的话,许多发电技术,无论清洁依然污染,必要保险盈利。除非市集是固定的,不然对行业的补贴只会增高。

  1. Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a
    reason to put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe
    and China, investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are
    cut back. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It
    is to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make
    better use of it.

An inconvenient
truth
是1部关于天气变化和中外变暖的纪录片,维基上译作《难以忽视的真相》——译者注
put the brakes on sth清洁财富的污浊秘密,泰王国拟对使用区块链发电售电收取额外国资本费。: to stop something that is happening
cut back: If you cut back something such as expenditure or cut
back on it, you reduce it.
e.g. The Government has cut back on defence spending.

三)政策制定者已经把那几个尴尬的实为看作停止可再生财富的二个缘由。在亚洲和华夏的部分地域,可再生财富的投资正在缓慢,因为补贴被削减。但是,解决方案不是更少的风和太阳能。而是重新思虑世界如何为清洁财富定价,以便更好地应用它。

Shock to the system

  1. At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
    energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era.
    For much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by
    vertically integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s
    onwards, many of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised,
    so that market forces could determine where best to invest. Today
    only about 6% of electricity users get their power from monopolies.
    Yet everywhere the pressure to decarbonise power supply has
    brought the state creeping back into markets. This is disruptive
    for three reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other
    two are inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their
    intermittency and their very low running costs. All three help
    explain why power prices are low and public subsidies are
    addictive
    .
    4)其基本难题是,政坛补助的可再生财富已经被强加到四个见仁见智时代设计出的商海。在20世纪的大多数时候,电力是由垂直整合的、国有控制股份的垄断公司制造和平运动输的。从20世纪80年间初始,个中不少把持被打破,被私有化和动向,使市镇能力能够决定最棒投资倾向。前天唯有约6%的电力用户从垄断公司得到他们的电力。可是,随地去碳电力供应的压力一度使得国家骨子里潜回市面。那是破坏性的,有八个原因。第贰是补贴制度本人。别的三个是风和太阳的习性固有的:它们的间歇性和它们十分低的运作开支。那多少个原因帮忙分解了为啥电力价格低和国有补贴停不下来

  2. First, the splurge of public subsidy, of about 800bn dollars
    since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble
    reasons—to counter climate change and prime the pump for new,
    costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar panels. But
    subsidies hit just as electricity consumption in the rich world
    was stagnating because of growing energy efficiency and the
    financial crisis. The result was a glut of power-generating
    capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities earn from
    wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

prime the pump: to encourage a business, industry, or activity to
develop by putting money or effort into it
slash: to greatly reduce an amount, price etc = cut
e.g. The workforce has been slashed by 50%.

5)首先,公共补贴的“挥霍”,自二零一零年的话约为八千亿日币,扭曲了市面。它是由于华贵的理由——为了对抗天气变化和勉励发展新的、昂贵的技巧,包涵风力涡轮机和太阳电池板。然而,由于能源功效的不停增强和金融危害的熏陶,富裕国家的电力消耗停滞不前,补贴就在那儿出现。结果造成过量的发电能力,小幅度缩减了电力服务公司从周围电力市场获取的收入,从而阻碍了投资。

  1. Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries of wind and
    sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
    turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the
    time. To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power
    plants, such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in when renewables
    falter. But because they are 365bet官网,idle for long periods, they
    find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
    on, they require public funds.

kick in: If something kicks in, it begins to take effect.
e.g. As discounts kicked in, bookings for immediate travel rose by
15%.
falter: to become weaker and unable to continue in an effective
way
e.g. The economy is showing signs of faltering.
idle: not working or producing anything ≠ busy
e.g. The workers have been idle for the last six months.

陆)其次,蓝灰电源断断续续。风和太阳的变更莫测——
尤其是在没有适合天气的国家——意味着涡轮机和太阳电池板仅在局地年华致电。为了维持电力流动,系统依靠常规的发电厂,例如煤、重油或核能,在可再生能源减弱起到成效。可是因为他们绵绵居于空闲动静,他们发现很难吸引私人投资者。所以,为了维持灯亮着,他们须要国有基金。

  1. Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
    negligible or zero marginal running costs—because the wind and
    the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
    lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
    that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing
    power prices, and hence revenues for all.
    七)各样人都蒙受第三个要素的熏陶:可再生能源具有可忽略的要么是零分界运转本钱——因为风和太阳是免费的。在1个同情于以低于短时间资金生生产能力源的市场中,风能和太阳能从运维开销更高的提供商(如燃煤电厂)这里拿走生意,下降电价,从而下降了全体人的收益。

Get smart

  1. The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these
    problems get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which
    was first to feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost
    decade” of falling returns, stranded assets and corporate
    disruption. Last year, Germany’s two biggest electricity providers,
    E.ON and RWE, both split in two. In renewable-rich parts of America
    power providers struggle to find investors for new plants. Places
    with an abundance of wind, such as China, are curtailing wind
    farms to keep coal plants in business.

捌)可再生财富的渗透率越高,那些标题越严重——特别是在饱和市场。在率先感受到影响的澳国,电力服务公司饱受了收入下跌、资金财产搁浅和商社瓦解的“失去的10年”。2018年,德意志联邦共和国两大电力供应商E.ON和奥迪Q3WE两家都分拆成两家。在米国可再生财富丰盛的地区,电力供应商很难找到新工厂的投资者。拥有大量风力的地点,比如中华,正在削减风力发电站,以让燃煤电厂有事情可做。

  1. The corollary is that the electricity system is being
    re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
    public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
    renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
    using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
    politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
    blackouts. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
    cheap, dirty lignite caused emissions to rise, notwithstanding
    huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach the renewables
    revolution will stall.

9)推论是,电力系统正在被再一次调整,因为投资关键去往收益于国有支撑的园地。争辩的是,那代表扶助可再生能源的国度更加多,他们为正规发电厂支付的也更多,来选拔“体积支付”来化解间歇性。实际上,法学家而不是市面再一次决定哪些幸免停电。他们时常犯错误:德意志对方便、脏的褐煤的支撑引起排泄量上涨,就算其对可再生资源提供巨额补贴。未有一种新的艺术,可再生财富革命将熄火

  1. The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem.
    Digitalisation, smart meters and batteries are enabling companies
    and households to smooth out their demand—by doing some
    energy-intensive work at night, for example. This helps to cope with
    intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants, which are easy to
    flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are high-voltage
    grids that can move excess power around the network more
    efficiently.

smooth out: If you smooth out a problem or difficulty, you solve
it, especially by talking to the people concerned.
e.g. It’s O.K. I smoothed things out.

10)好消息是,新技巧能够支持消除那个标题。数字化,智能电表和电池使集团和家庭能够解决他俩的须求——例如在夜间做1些财富密集型的干活。那促进应对间歇性供应。小型、模块化的发电厂,不难灵活调节生产能力,变得更为受欢迎,高压电力网也得以更实惠地在网络上传输多余的电力。

  1. The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
    for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
    frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
    extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
    blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less
    electricity to balance the grid, just as they reward those who
    generate more of it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower
    depending how strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the
    time—a bit like an insurance policy. In short, policymakers should
    be clear they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable
    energy, but the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they
    should fix it.
    11)更大的天职是重复设计电力市集,以呈现对灵活供应和要求的新须求。他们应该更频仍地调动价格,以显示天气的波动。在Infiniti稀罕的时候,高固定价格能够起成效来阻拦停电。市场应该奖励愿意利用更少的电力的人来抵消电力网,正如他们奖励那多少个产生越来越多电力的人。账单能够被组织变成更高或更低,那取决于客户多么强烈地希望一向保险电力供应——有点像保单。综上可得,政策制定者应该精晓,他们有毛病,原因不是可再生能源,而是过时的电价制度。然后他们相应化解它。

原稿出处:经济学人杂志

译者:七呵夫

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转载及用于其余商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由笔者承担。本人同意简书平台在接获有关作品权人的布告后,删除小说。

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家用阳光能屋顶发电机的数码正在飞快增添。那便是财富监管理委员会员会(EKoleosC)要求制订对各类人都同样重视禁锢的由来。

【2】wreck破坏,毁坏

China accounted for more than 40 percent of capacity growth in global
renewable energy in 2016, which was a record year for worldwide clean
energy additions, according to a new study.

更为多的泰王国公司利用分布式账本技术(DLT)协助房主从屋顶太阳能系统中盈利。新一代区块链消费者通过在分流的点对点(p二p)财富市集上购买销售剩余的太阳能电力能源,致使该国国有公用事业利润锐减。

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201陆年,中华夏族民共和国担当了多于十分四的芸芸众生可再生能源,依照一项新的求学呈现,这是壹项满世界彩虹色能源合成物的记录。

换句话说,随着市场范围的壮大,间接从国营公用事业公司买卖的电力收缩,那意味着古板电力行业的净利润缩短。

ALMOST 150 years after photovoltaic cells【3】 and wind
turbines【4】
were invented, they still generate only 7% of the
world’s electricity. Yet something remarkable is happening. From being
peripheral to the energy system just over a decade ago, they are now
growing faster than any other energy source and their falling costs
are making them competitive with fossil fuels【5】. BP, an oil
firm, expects renewables to account for half of the growth in global
energy supply over the next 20 years. It is no longer
far-fetched【6】 to think that the world is entering an era of
clean, unlimited and cheap power. About time, too.

The International Energy Agency, a Paris-based policy advisory
organization also known as the IEA, found that renewables accounted for
almost two-thirds of new power capacity last year. For the first time,
solar additions rose faster than any other fuel, including coal.

就在一年前,泰王国还抛弃了对非政党太阳能发电的冷酷限定。据《马尼拉邮报》电视发表,泰王国政坛允许家庭和供销合作社去年五月将太阳电池板发生的剩余能量出售给EGAT,但或然当年并不曾料到p二p财富社区会这样飞快地使用区块链技术呢。

【三】photovoltaic cell光伏电池

国际财富代理中央(IEA),一家在举行在时尚之都的问讯集团,发现可再生产资料源占新资源的八分之四。有史以来第1回,太阳能合成物发展的比包蕴煤炭在内的其余燃料快。

英文原著

【四】wind turbine风力涡轮机

Last year, new solar capacity around the world grew by 50 percent,
reaching more than 74 gigawatts, with China accounting for almost half
of that expansion. China is also the world market leader in hydropower,
bioenergy for electricity and heat, and electric vehicles.

New regulations drafted by Thailand officials demand that electricity
producers using blockchain be charged additional fees. Government
regulators fear an explosion in independent power generation will lead
to a reduction in revenue.

【伍】fossil fuel化石燃料,矿物燃料

2018年,全世界太阳能体量增进了2/四,在中中原人民共和国担当了左近的陆分之3的能量增加的情事下实现并跨越7四千兆瓦。同时中夏族民共和国也是全球用水力和生物能发电,热,和电力交通工具市镇的决策者。

Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has demanded the
fees be paid as a subsidy for potentially destabilizing effects
blockchain technology brings, Nikkei Asian Review reports.

【陆】far-fetched 牵强附会,难以置信的

Fatih Birol, executive director of the IEA, estimates that renewable
capacity will grow by about 1,000 GW-or half the current global
capacity in coal power-by 2022.

“The number of household solar rooftop power generators is increasing
rapidly. That’s why the Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) needs to
develop regulation that is fair for everybody,” declared ERC member
Viraphol Jirapraditkul.

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IEA的实行监护人Fatih
Birol测度在202二年可再生产资料源覆盖面能够增强十亿沃特t,恐怕今后举世用煤量的4/8。

There is a growing number of Thai companies leveraging distributed
ledger technology (DLT) to help homeowners profit from rooftop solar
systems. A new generation of blockchain-savvy consumers is muscling the
state-owned utilities out of profits by buying and selling surplus solar
energy on decentralized peer-to-peer (p2p) energy markets.

There is a $20trn hitch【7】, though. To get from here to there
requires huge amounts of investment over the next few decades, to
replace old smog-belching【8】 power plants and to upgrade the
pylons【9】 and wires that bring electricity to consumers.
Normally investors like putting their money into electricity because
it offers reliable returns. Yet green energy has a dirty secret. The
more it is deployed, the more it lowers the price of power from any
source. That makes it hard to manage the transition to a carbon-free
future, during which many generating technologies, clean and dirty,
need to remain profitable if the lights are to stay on. Unless the
market is fixed, subsidies to the industry will only grow.

“What we are witnessing is the birth of a new era in solar photovoltaics
(panels),” Birol said. “We expect that solar photovoltaic capacity
growth will be higher than any other renewable technology through 2022.”

As the markets grow bigger, less electricity is being purchased directly
from the state-run utilities, meaning less profits for the traditional
power industry.

【7】hitch钩住(v),困难,故障,结(n);get hitched 结婚

“大家正在见证多个新太阳能电板时代的出生,“
Birol说,”大家预测在2022年,太阳能光板的能量会比此外任何可再生产资料源技术升高的快。“

Here, we are witnessing the decentralization of the energy sector, in
Thailand at least. Andreas Antonopolous thinks that this is one of the
“most important trends in human history.” Despite the benefits of p2p
energy markets, the fact that governments can just impose additional
fees to compensate puts a real dampener on things.

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In its report, the IEA labeled China as the world’s “undisputed
renewable growth leader”, driven by concerns about air pollution and
capacity targets that were outlined in the country’s 13th Five-Year
Plan(2016-20).

It was only a year ago that Thailand rolled back strict restrictions on
non-government solar power generation. Bangkok Post reported that the
Thai government allowed households and businesses to sell surplus energy
generated by solar panels back to EGAT last September, but I guess it
didn’t count on blockchain being adopted by the p2p energy community so
quickly.

【8】belch喷(大量)出,吐出,打嗝

IEA的报告中,中夏族民共和国被认为是社会风气上“毫无疑问的可再生产资料源的管事人“,在对环境污染和能量目的的忧患下,可再生产资料源的费用被标明在中夏族民共和国第2三个伍年安插中。

译者:高旭

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The IEA report said China represents half of global solar photovoltaic
demand, and Chinese companies manufacture around 60 percent of the
world’s panels.

来源:THE NEXT WEB

【9】pylon电缆塔

IEA的告知中还说神州象征了天下太阳能板的须求量,中夏族民共和国创设了全世界百分之60左右的日光能板。

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Policymakers are already seeing this inconvenient truth as a reason to
put the brakes on renewable energy. In parts of Europe and China,
investment in renewables is slowing as subsidies are cut
back【10】
. However, the solution is not less wind and solar. It is
to rethink how the world prices clean energy in order to make better
use of it.

The IEA states that, due to the size of the market, policy developments
in China will have global implications for solar energy demand, supply,
and prices.

小编:

【10】cut back (on sth)削减,减少

IEA提出,由于集镇的体量,中国策略的升华会对伍洲的太阳能必要,供应和价格发生震慑。

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The report identified the growing cost of renewable subsidies and grid
integration in China as potential barriers to further growth, and noted
that China’s renewable energy policies are being modified in order to
address these challenges.

Shock to the system

At its heart, the problem is that government-supported renewable
energy has been imposed on a market designed in a different era. For
much of the 20th century, electricity was made and moved by vertically
integrated, state-controlled monopolies. From the 1980s onwards, many
of these were broken up, privatised and liberalised, so that market
forces could determine where best to invest. Today only about 6% of
electricity users get their power from monopolies. Yet everywhere the
pressure to decarbonise【11】 power supply has brought the state
creeping back into【12】 markets. This is disruptive for three
reasons. The first is the subsidy system itself. The other two are
inherent to the nature of wind and solar: their intermittency and
their very low running costs. All three help explain why power prices
are low and public subsidies are addictive.

告诉中证明了华夏的可再生财富的津贴和网络集成的价格持续抓好,会对前途的升高有暧昧阻碍,并以为中夏族民共和国对可再生财富的方针相应依据那几个阻碍做出调整。

【11】decarbonise除碳,脱碳;de-去掉,除掉,……反义

China is moving away from its feed-in-tariff program to a quota system
with green certificates. The IEA states that these new policies,
together with power market reform, new transmission lines, and the
expansion of distributed generation, are expected to speed up the
deployment of solar energy.

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神州从停放电价项目发展到有银白证件的定额分配制。IEA认为这几个新的国策加上能量市镇的重新整理,新的电子通信传输线,和分布式发电的增多会加快太阳能财富的遍布。

【1二】creep in/into sth 开端发出(或影响)

Under an accelerated case -where government policy lifts barriers to
growth-IEA analysis finds that global renewable capacity growth led by
China could be boosted by another 30 percent, totaling an extra 1,150 GW
by 2022.

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在政党组织政府部门策化解发展阻碍的气象下,IEA分析发今后202二年,中中原人民共和国引导的全世界可再生能源的体积会在追加百分之三十也正是1,150千瓦。

First, the splurge【13】 of public subsidy, of about $800bn
since 2008, has distorted the market. It came about for noble reasons—
to counter climate change and prime the pump【14】 for new,
costly technologies, including wind turbines and solar
panels【15】
. But subsidies hit【16】 just as electricity
consumption in the rich world was stagnating because of growing energy
efficiency and the financial crisis. The result was a glut【17】
of power-generating capacity that has slashed the revenues utilities
earn from wholesale power markets and hence deterred investment.

Globally, falling auction prices for wind and solar projects have
contributed to the rise in new renewable energy capacity.

【13】splurge挥霍,乱花钱

从环球的角度来看,风力和太阳能项目竞价价格的消沉,对升级新的可再生财富容积做出了进献。

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Last month, the United Kingdom government held a wind farm auction at
which two companies agreed to build facilities for 57.50 pounds ($76)
per megawatt hour. The price is half what new wind farms were built for
just two years ago, and means off shore wind power will be cheaper than
nuclear energy in the UK for the first time.

【1肆】prime the pump投资振兴

上个月,大不列颠及苏格兰联合王国政坛实行了风力场的竞价会,两家集团同意成立每时辰发生57.50韩元(约合7陆美金)的百万沃特t的设施。这么些价钱已经是两年前新建筑工程厂的1/二。意味着在U.K.,海上风力发电第贰次比原子能发电要便宜。

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Researchers from the UK and China recently announced five new projects
to develop the”next generation” of technology in wind and wave power.

【一伍】solar panel太阳能电池板

英帝国和华夏的切磋人口方今透露了八个新类型去研商“下三个时代“的风能和波浪能的科学和技术。

【1陆】hit发生不良影响,危机

The UK’s Natural Environment Research Council and the Engineering and
Physical Sciences Research Council have pledged 4 million pounds in
funding during the next three years for the projects, which will also
receive funding from the  of China.

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英国的当然能源研商委员会和工程及自然科委会在以往三年会为这么些连串出资四百万澳元。中中原人民共和国国家自然科学基金委员会员会也会掏钱。

【一七】glut供过于求,供应过剩

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Second, green power is intermittent. The vagaries【18】 of wind
and sun—especially in countries without favourable weather—mean that
turbines and solar panels generate electricity only part of the time.
To keep power flowing, the system relies on conventional power plants,
such as coal, gas or nuclear, to kick in【19】 when renewables
falter【20】. But because they are idle for long periods, they
find it harder to attract private investors. So, to keep the lights
on, they require public funds.

【1八】vagaries风云突变

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【1玖】kick in开端生效

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【20】falter衰弱,衰退

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Everyone is affected by a third factor: renewable energy has
negligible or zero marginal running costs【21】—because the wind
and the sun are free. In a market that prefers energy produced at the
lowest short-term cost, wind and solar take business from providers
that are more expensive to run, such as coal plants, depressing power
prices, and hence revenues for all.

【贰1】marginal
costs【会计学】边际资金(指因小额变动而致使总财力的应和变更)

Gets mart

The higher the penetration of renewables, the worse these problems
get—especially in saturated markets. In Europe, which was first to
feel the effects, utilities have suffered a “lost decade” of falling
returns, stranded assets and corporate disruption. Last year,
Germany’s two biggest electricity providers, E.ON and RWE, both split
in two. In renewable-rich parts of America power providers struggle to
find investors for new plants. Places with an abundance of wind, such
as China, are curtailing【22】 wind farms to keep coal plants in
business.

【22】curtail缩减,限制

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The corollary【23】 is that the electricity system is being
re-regulated as investment goes chiefly to areas that benefit from
public support. Paradoxically, that means the more states support
renewables, the more they pay for conventional power plants, too,
using “capacity payments” to alleviate intermittency. In effect,
politicians rather than markets are once again deciding how to avoid
blackouts【24】. They often make mistakes: Germany’s support for
cheap, dirty lignite【25】 caused emissions to rise,
notwithstanding huge subsidies for renewables. Without a new approach
the renewables revolution will stall.

【二三】corollary必然的结果(或结论)

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【2四】blackout 断电,停电,灯火管制,音信封锁

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【25】lignite褐煤

The good news is that new technology can help fix the problem (see
page 16). Digitalisation, smart meters【26】 and batteries are
enabling companies and households to smooth out【27】 their
demand—by doing some energy-intensive work at night, for example. This
helps to cope with intermittent supply. Small, modular power plants,
which are easy to flex up or down, are becoming more popular, as are
high-voltage grids that can move excess power around the network more
efficiently.

【二陆】smart meter智能电度量提醒仪表

【27】smooth out

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【27】smooth sth (back/down/out) 使平滑,使平整

The bigger task is to redesign power markets to reflect the new need
for flexible supply and demand. They should adjust prices more
frequently, to reflect the fluctuations of the weather. At times of
extreme scarcity, a high fixed price could kick in to prevent
blackouts. Markets should reward those willing to use less electricity
to balance the grid, just as they reward those who generate more of
it. Bills could be structured to be higher or lower depending how
strongly a customer wanted guaranteed power all the time—a bit like an
insurance policy【28】. In short, policymakers should be clear
they have a problem and that the cause is not renewable energy, but
the out-of-date system of electricity pricing. Then they should fix
it.

【28】insurance policy保险单

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