【365bet官网】London时报,饶毅致信United States科技(science and technology)COO

原标题:饶毅致信美利坚同盟国科学技术公司主:地军事学家应该有脊梁

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XU TIAN embodies the American dream to an extent that many of his fellow
Americans might well envy.

Do you know how fast does a high-speed train run? 

(原标题:饶毅致信美利坚协作国科学技术长官:地艺术学家应该有脊梁)

Xin Jin

So what is he doing in China?

Do you know the speed of an airplane? 

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By Kevin Holden Dec. 16, 2016 , 9:00 AM

Part of the answer lies here, on the sprawling grounds of a former
military airfield. It is the new campus of Fudan University in Shanghai,
mammoth ersatz-Roman classroom buildings erupting from the flatland the
way American land-grant universities sprouted classrooms in their salad
days, 50 to 60 years ago. Here is a gigantic new law school. Over there
is a hulking biosciences building.

Now my colleagues are working on designing high-speed-rail whose speed
will be 1000 kilometers per hour! 

撰文 | 饶 毅

When China’s leaders decided a generation ago to experiment with opening
the People’s Republic to global market forces, they created an
archipelago of special economic zones (SEZs) along the nation’s southern
coast. South China’s resulting transformation into an export powerhouse
has helped make the country a world trade titan. Now the region is part
of a new round of reforms aimed at reshaping China into a globally
connected pioneer in the sciences. China’s universities, along with the
National Natural Science Foundation and the Chinese Academy of Sciences
(CAS), have created award schemes aimed at attracting scientists trained
in the United States or Europe to take positions across southern China
and to help spur the next stage of the region’s metamorphosis. These
strategies are helping power research breakthroughs in the spheres of
space science, physics, genomics, and medicine.

And here, Dr. Xu said, are his two homes for lab rats.

Back in 1896, China lagged behind in railway design, and there was no
Chinese railway engineer at that point. 

U.S.A.Washington特区

From rice paddies to space stations

“There are 20,000 cages here,” he said, almost nonchalantly. “That one
over there has 25,000. Each one holds a maximum of four or five
animals.”

Over one century has passed, his proposal has become one of China’s
leading centers of engineering education. It was also the second oldest
institution of higher education in the history of China. It is the
engine of Chinese high-speed rail.

国办健康切磋 院(NIH)参谋长

The drive to transmute the country’s burgeoning economic might into
scientific prowess is evident across southern China. Shenzhen,
crisscrossed by rice paddies when it was designated an SEZ, is now one
of the world’s fastest growing cities and hosts one of China’s leading
genomics outfits. Similarly, the tropical island of Hainan, ringed by
fishing villages when it too became an SEZ, opened its new space launch
center this summer. Thousands of visitors watched the premier liftoff of
the new Long March 7 rocket, along with the prototype of a
next-generation human space capsule that it carried into orbit. CAS
leaders say spaceflight is a high-priority sector for heightened
international cooperation. China recently signed an agreement with the
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, outlining Beijing’s
pledge “to enable United Nations member states, particularly developing
countries, to conduct space experiments onboard China’s space station,
as well as to provide flight opportunities for astronauts and payload
engineers.” CAS is stepping up its twin drives to boost collaboration on
transborder science projects and to increase its standing in worldwide
science. One area in which it has made headway is in studies
encompassing the formation of the universe, the earliest galaxies, and
the solar system. Planetary scientist Yuan Li, a postdoctoral researcher
at Rice University in Houston, says he was persuaded to accept a
position at the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry through a Global
Youth Experts award. Li is the lead author of a recent Nature Geoscience
study, cowritten with colleagues at Rice, which posited that the
life-enabling carbon in the Earth’s crust might be the result of a
collision between the proto-Earth and a Mercury-like planet about 4.4
billion years ago. That collision was distinct from the interplanetary
smashup that scientists believe gave birth to the Moon during the early
formation of the solar system. “During the accretion of our Earth, there
were probably numerous collisions between the proto-Earth and small
planetary embryos,” says Li. This early period in the solar system’s
evolution, he adds, might have resembled a massive billiards game
involving the inner protoplanets crashing into each other before
entering stabilized orbits around the sun. Li’s paper is part of a
steady rise of articles written by Chinese scholars and published in the
world’s leading academic journals. He says China’s expanding
constellation of incentives for scientists is a powerful attraction for
scholars trained in the West. “In the past five years, thousands of
young scientists like me have returned to China,” he says.

Dr. Xu is a world-class geneticist. A Yale professor and one of roughly
340 American scientists endowed by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute
to pursue their wildest research desires, he seeks a holy grail: the key
to what makes a mouse tick, gene by gene by gene. The implications for
human health are profound, as the mouse and human genomes are
substantially the same.

What makes us different?

Francis Collins工学大学生、经济学大学生

Particle physics breakthroughs

At Yale, he devised a process that allows mass production of genetically
altered mice, an important step toward decoding the genome. At Fudan, he
perfected it, and he is putting it to work at laboratories that hold one
of the world’s largest collections of test animals. Soon, the new campus
will sprout another building in the neo-Classical style: the Fudan
Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine, of which Dr.
Xu is a co-director.

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【365bet官网】London时报,饶毅致信United States科技(science and technology)COO。同甘共苦的Collins学士:

China is interested not only in the macroworld, it is also keen on the
microworld. Scientists with an advanced degree in physics who have
accepted positions at south China universities are helping track and
explain how neutrinos morph into different types, or generations, as
they fly through space at nearly the speed of light. These physicists
have joined an international team of scientists who are studying nuclear
reactor–produced neutrinos in the southern Chinese seaside resort of
Daya Bay. Collaboration on these experiments involves universities and
physicists stretching across four continents, says Kam-Biu Luk, a
professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a
distinguished visiting scholar at the University of Hong Kong. Luk, who
heads the international participation in the project, says this
exploration of the long-shrouded world of neutrinos is one of the most
outstanding experiments in particle physics ever conducted by joint
groups of universities based in China and the United States. Physicists
at the University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong,
Shenzhen University, Dongguan University of Technology, and Sun Yat-sen
University have joined counterparts at Yale, Princeton, and other
laboratories in this expanding experiment. Chinese scientists involved
in these neutrino observations, along with the international team headed
by Luk, were awarded the prestigious Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental
Physics in 2016, for outlining how neutrinos transform as they speed
through the cosmos. They won, according to the prize citation, for
“revealing a new frontier beyond, and possibly far beyond, the standard
model of particle physics.” Due to the rapidly growing neutrino physics
programs in China, Jiajie Ling, a postdoctoral researcher at the
University of Illinois who is now a professor in physics at Sun Yat-sen
University, opted to take a position there with start-up funding support
from the Thousand Talents Program for Distinguished Young Scholars. He
is helping to guide a new series of experiments at Daya Bay: the search
for the hypothesized “sterile neutrino.” This proposed fourth type of
neutrino could be a form of the elusive dark matter that scientists have
been searching for since the last century, says Ling.

The Chinese government built them all, gratis.

We have tree campus, based in two cities—Chengdu and the Emei.

您境遇青眼,因为你是探究人类疾病基因变化卓尔不群的地教育学家,也是令人尊重的、宗旨为“探求生命系统本质和行事平素文化、用于进步健康、延长生命、减弱疾病”的公营健康商讨院(NIH)的厅长。

Future home of particle colliders

In a sense, Yale and the Hughes Institute have outsourced the genome
project to a place where labs are built quicker and more cheaply —
“China speed,” Dr. Xu said, half-jokingly — and where talented young
scientists work for a pittance.

Chengdu is home to pandas and hotpots and Sichuan Cuisine.

人们欢呼NIH为矫正United States平民和全人类的常规所作出的贡献。其价值观和专业继续了全人类的文明礼貌,而希腊共和国(Ελληνική Δημοκρατία)、孔雀之国、中中原人民共和国的北宋知识都曾对人类文明有所进献。

According to Ling, the massive neutrino study he is working on is
helping China move closer to realizing its plans to host an
international coalition of elite physicists around its proposed
supercollider projects. China’s top-echelon physicists, in tandem with
leading scientists worldwide, are designing a ringed particle smasher
measuring up to 100 kilometers in circumference that would initially be
configured as an electron–positron collider, and would later also host a
proton–proton accelerator. “After so many years of preparation and
joining world-wide experiments, now is a fantastic time for China to
host the Circular Electron–Positron Collider and the Super Proton–Proton
Collider,” Ling says. “More importantly, it is also China’s
responsibility to contribute to advancing high-energy physics and
humanity’s knowledge about the universe.” Jie Gao, one of the leaders of
the twin circular collider projects at the CAS Institute of High Energy
Physics, says southern Guangdong Province is a leading contender to host
the ringed accelerators. Chinese and American scientists who are laying
the groundwork for what would be the largest and most sophisticated
particle physics lab in history predict it could attract thousands of
the world’s experimental physicists to take up positions in China’s
planned “collider city.” Alain Blondel, one of the primary shapers of
the Future Circular Collider being mapped out by CERN (the European
Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland, says “it would be
fantastic” if the leaders of CERN and of the Chinese supercollider
program wind up competing to attract the globe’s foremost physicists.
Tao Liu, a physicist at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,
echoes this sentiment. He says China’s planned collider project is the
most exciting ever to capture the attention of leading physics
professors and science students across Hong Kong. The supercolliders,
Liu adds, will “boost development in science and society in the coming
decades, [and] will inspire young talents of this and future
generations to devote themselves to the exploration of basic science.”

“Realistically, with the flatlined budget in science, one can imagine
he’d have to spend six times the money he’s spending in China” to
duplicate the labs in the United States, said Jack E. Dixon, the Hughes
Institute’s vice president and chief scientific officer. “It’s probably
just not possible in the United States to do that on the scale that he
wants to do it.”

Emei, is a city listed in UNESCO cultural heritage and naturalheritage.
The campus is right at the foot of the mountain.

智商传承在江山里面调换了相当长日子。西方从中华求学了造纸术、指南针、火药和因地制宜印刷,美利坚同盟国从欧洲攻读了好多。

Mining the genome

Dr. Xu now leaves Yale for Shanghai about three months a year. Other
American scientists of Chinese descent are moving for good, lured by a
lavishly financed government campaign that offers foreign scientists
ample money and a chance to make waves in what is still a small research
pond.

No university in China boast such great cities and great natures.

物文学家不能够屈服于政治人士

Just across the border from Hong Kong, universities and the local
government in Shenzhen are channeling their expanding funds into making
globally recognized advances in life science research and applications.
“Shenzhen has repositioned itself as one of the world’s leading centers
for genetics research,” says Bicheng Yang, communications director at
the genomics outfit BGI, which is moving forward with plans to create a
specialized life science college in partnership with the South China
University of Technology (SCUT) and the University of Copenhagen. Four
years ago, BGI signed a cooperation pact with the Gates Foundation to
set up joint training programs with the University of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences and SCUT. “The aim is to integrate the new college
more and more into scientific research that stretches across the
continents,” she explains. Xin Jin, a genomics expert with dual research
positions at BGI and at the SCUT, says, “One of the most exciting
projects we are working on is the Chinese Million-ome Project, aimed at
decoding one million Chinese genomes across the entire country.” The
university and BGI are also exploring the use of genomics to map the
genetic evolution of current populations dating back to the early modern
humans who trekked to Asia more than 40,000 years ago, and their
admixture with more archaic species, adds Jin, who coauthored a study on
this topic published in Nature.

BUT were money the only issue, Dr. Xu might not be here. For while he is
a thoroughly naturalized American, Shanghai and Fudan are where he was
born, and where he ultimately found his calling. He left China for the
United States 27 years ago, chasing a dream he thought unattainable
here.

(2) International Community

你一月25日所谓美利哥生物医研面临胁迫的信令人吃惊,因为那是和日常期第1次政党决策者限制科学调换。

At the frontier of human genome editing

Dr. Xu does not want China’s young scientists to be denied their dreams,
and not every aspiring Chinese scientist is lucky enough to make it to
Yale.

The English websites of the university, international office and
all the schools is a window to the university, gibing a panoramic view
of what is happening in the university and beyond. Particularly, the
international office website introduces policies and programs that
support international students in the campus community.

而如《科学塞尔维亚人》以下报纸发表的剧情更骇人传说:“Collins致信约三万个接受NIH接济的机构,鼓励它们与联邦调查局(FBI)地区办公室开会,商讨对于文化产权的威胁和别国干涉”。整个人类历史上,一贯没有四个物医学家特邀过类似FBI的机构监测“外国干部涉”。有个别政党如此做过,但不是因为总领物法学家或担任领导职分的物艺术学家发起。固然在苏维埃社会主义共和国结盟最乌黑的一代,总领物历史学家也有脊梁做反而的:物教育学家卡皮查营救了她的上学的小孩子朗道,后者在斯大林权力(和恐怖)顶峰一代被查明反斯大林行为。

The potential use of genomic engineering to eradicate the genetic bases
for diseases is also being explored by groups of university researchers
in the southern mega-city of Guangzhou. One of these groups recently
reported conducting a leading-edge experiment, but with only limited
success, in editing the genomes of human embryos to confer genetic
resistance to HIV infections. A similar paper published in 2015 by
researchers at Sun Yat-sen University ignited a global debate over
whether this type of research should be conducted on human embryos
because of its potential to trigger genetic changes that ripple across
future generations. Since then, leaders of the national science
academies in the United States, the United Kingdom, and China have met
and reached a consensus that while this type of research could continue,
any applications should be prohibited. The lead organizer of the summit
involving the three science academies was David Baltimore, president
emeritus of the California Institute of Technology. He adds that Chinese
researchers can move forward with embryonic genome editing studies as
long as “experiments are limited to 14 days of in vitro growth and no
implantation is attempted.” The genomics teams at Sun Yat-sen University
and at Guangzhou Medical University, says Baltimore, represent “an
effort of two labs to move into the forefront of the research.” Some
scholars suggest that China’s support for these studies, in view of the
U.S. Congressional ban on federal funding for research involving
modifying the genomes of human embryos, could help scientists across
Chinese universities move ahead in this realm of gene editing.

“This has made students realize it’s possible to do first-class research
in China,” he said in a long interview at his spartan Fudan office, one
wall covered by a scribble-filled whiteboard. “That’s a very important
change in the mind-set. It makes them more willing to take on high-risk
projects and ask big questions.”

International Students Cultural Festival.The festivities commence
with a speech by VC andexhibitions on cultures of students’ home
countries and a grand musicalfestival.

从而,你的信和你鼓励FBI调查的行路,大大偏离了科学实践的常规。

Reversing “brain drain”

Dr. Xu’s own rise was a matter of luck — and boundless ambition. He was
born in 1962 in Jiaxing, about 50 miles southwest of Shanghai, to a
onetime college literature professor and his wife, a union leader at a
silk factory. Reviled for his educated status during the Cultural
Revolution, Dr. Xu’s father was sent to a labor camp; his mother was
publicly persecuted. In middle school, Dr. Xu suffered daily criticism.

*A variety of tours and trips **to famous attractions all over the
country will be an eye-opening experience for all our
international students.*

几年前,你在香港(Hong Kong)公然称:科学没有国界,因为它属于人类。

In another region of south China, at the Guangdong University of Foreign
Studies, Jing Yang has been conducting research with colleagues at
Pennsylvania State University on structural changes in the brain that
occur when students begin studying a second language. Yang, formerly a
postdoctoral fellow at Penn State, says she joined Guangdong University
of Foreign Studies because the school “is well known for cultivating
international talent.” She says she aims to help transform the
university’s language center into “a leading research center for
linguistics and applied linguistics,” and adds that the government is
providing large-scale grant support to reach that goal. China’s economic
ascent and the increasingly attractive recruitment packages offered by
its universities are becoming extremely appealing to Chinese scholars
who have studied in the West, Yang says, and are beginning to help
reverse a decades-long brain drain, during which scholars left the
country to pursue their careers elsewhere. While many Chinese scientists
still opt to stay in Europe or the United States after obtaining an
advanced degree there, Yang observes that “some scholars, like me, chose
to go home to work for a brighter future for ourselves and also for our
country.” These scholars, she adds, are helping create clusters of
excellent scientific research across China. “The rise of China
definitely is not limited to the economy,” Yang explains. “We hope our
country can excel in science, culture, and technology too. It is a
double win for China and the world.”

“I was really full of anger,” he said. “The school principal would come
to me and say: ‘How come you are in school? We aren’t supposed to
educate people like you. You’re the kind we punish.’ ” The principal had
studied under Dr. Xu’s father in college.

(3) English and Chinese Courses

这句话被大规模翻译,人们交口赞誉。

When the Cultural Revolution ended, he enrolled at Fudan. Determined to
avoid being labeled an elitist, he chose the most obscure major he could
find. Fudan’s genetics department, the only one in China, was led by C.
C. Tan, a brilliant scholar educated in the United States.

The University offers many English-taught courses in different
disciplines for international students. Please do not worry the language
problems.

真理就是真理。不可能因为政治带头人或律师说的分裂,地医学家就转头真理。

Dr. Xu became his protégé, and he graduated with honors, eventually
winning a stipend in 1983 to attend City College of New York. Broke and
barely able to speak English, he lived with fellow students in an
abandoned house on 140th Street in Harlem, subsisting on bread and
bananas.

If you want to learn Chinese, don’t worry, we have School of
International Education, and we have students language partners to
practice with you.

科学的一直和地文学家的德性勇气

In his first week, Dr. Xu was mugged at knifepoint. “In the Cultural
Revolution, I go through a lot of hardships, so that’s O.K.,” he said.

 (4) Frist-class subjects

正确是固定的;而政治,尤其是前天U.S.正值推行的那种,是短暂的。历史作证,劣质政治会灭亡,正如苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟和纳粹德意志联邦共和国所证实的。

But he quickly discovered that City College lacked money to finance his
real love, laboratory research. So after fruitlessly scouring New York
for another scholarship, he took a train to New Haven to plead his case
at Yale, where he won a fellowship despite his poor English and lack of
credentials, like graduate exam scores.

Looking back, the university has created loads of “No.1”s in China and
even in the world. For instance,the first railway designed by
Chinese, the first electric locomotive in China, the first planar
and curved suspension bridge in the world.

自身可怜大多数美利坚合众国地农学家,你们即使被教育——也每每自以为——道德正直,其实经常目生历史,不懂什么处理如纳粹德国或苏联那种邪恶政治压力。

After postdoctoral work on fruit-fly genetics at the University of
California, Berkeley, he returned to the Yale School of Medicine. In
1996, he pitched a radical idea to the Hughes Institute: breeding
genetically altered mice with the ease that scientists produced
mutations in fast-breeding fruit flies.

At present, our materials science, engineering and computer science are
TOP 1% in the world.

附属类小部件推荐一篇小说(“The Singular 莫拉l Compass of OttoKrayer”),记叙一人德意志药艺术学家,在其事业早期,他不肯接任因纳粹开掉犹太化学家而空出的系CEO职位。他能够承受这一职分,不因社会之恶而责怪本人,但她在完全预知对友好事业的重伤情形下,写信拒绝下车。此后她被纳粹禁止任学术职位、连教室都无法用。他被迫离开德意志不是因为她是犹太人,而是因为他敢于申张正义、声讨罪恶。

The first scientist who produced genetically altered mice won the 2007
Nobel Prize in Medicine. But breeding mutant mice was a laborious,
one-mouse-at-a-time process. A decade of trial and error rewarded Dr. Xu
with the jackpot: a butterfly gene, nicknamed piggyBac, that could
insert itself into the mouse genome, randomly turning off one gene per
mouse.

(5) International DNA

最后受纳粹和斯大林主义损害最大的是德意志联邦共和国和俄罗斯。希特勒上台以前,德意志在数学、物理、化学和你协调查研讨究的遗传学专业都远远超越,之后德意志不错再也没完毕那时的档次。

Until then, scientists had charted the mouse genome but had scant idea
what each gene actually did. Dr. Xu’s innovation allowed them to find
out by examining mouse genes on a vast scale.

At the beginning of the establishment, the university delivered all
courses in English. Now in the age of globalization,the university
attaches more importance on internationalization.

历史足以重复,若是我们不从过去搜查缴获教训,即便是其余国家的训诫。

In the five years since the piggyBac gene was disclosed, researchers
worldwide have decoded more of the mouse genome than had been deciphered
in the preceding 20 years. Dr. Xu and other scientists using his
technique are now looking for genes that govern behavior, nutrition,
instinct, predisposition to diseases and other basics. Just one
discovery — a gene regulating the molecule that controls digestion in
mice — potentially opens the door to simple treatments that could end
not only obesity but malnutrition as well, he said.

1100 international students from countries. 

今昔川普主义盛行的美利坚协作国,对德国人,包罗U.S.物工学家,都以考验的随时。

THE report of Dr. Xu’s achievement at Fudan, published in August 2005 in
the prestigious scientific journal Cell, was the first time that
China-based research had produced a cover story.

In collaboration with 190 universities of countries and regions

现阶段,川普主义对正确的首要威逼而是是减掉预算,与事业被毁、生命被灭还不可能对照。但如此下滑,大家怎么领会,在众多学员是别人、一批助教也是外人的气象下,有哪些能够阻碍竞争的实验室之间不去互相举报“国外影响“?现在的没错斟酌,需求分成“United States”和“国外”吗?科学学会的年份会议,应该驳回“海外影响”吗?NIH援助的United States国内和国际会议,应该请FBI来监督吗?

In that sense, Dr. Xu’s victory is a cautionary tale for American policy
makers.

Statistics given by the US’s International Institute of Education shows
that, China has become the destination country for international
students. With more much favorable polices for international talents put
into place, we are open to you. Engineer better future, together with
us.

明天是美利坚联邦合众国物法学家展现本人脊梁的随时。

Dr. Robert J. Alpern, the dean of Yale’s medical school, said that China
leaped at the chance to host Dr. Xu’s project when the American
scientific establishment, asked several times to finance Dr. Xu’s work,
demurred. “They were clearly trying to make an entrance into science,
and they were excited by Tian and this project,” Dr. Alpern said. “They
felt Tian would lift China and science. And I think that’s true.”

地教育学家及其选取协助的任意

Science is not a zero-sum game — even when the competition is trying to
poach your stars, said Dr. Dixon of the Hughes Institute. World-class
research benefits all humanity, regardless of where it originates.

负有物文学家都有取舍其工作地方的任性,有选取他们觉得适用的通力同盟目的的自由。

“Some Chinese labs are in fact very competitive with U.S. laboratories
now,” Dr. Dixon said. “And in a way, that’s what you hope to see — that
they would excel. I don’t view this as an arms race of any sort.”

毋庸置疑研讨能够被别的合法帮衬机构所支撑。政党单位是满世界帮衬科学的最主要来源,那是我们接受的具体。各个化学家接受多少个来自的援助也不曾是题材,固然帮衬来源于四个国家。

Dr. Alpern agrees. “The key to success in the United States is
strengthening the American enterprise, not trying to slow down another
country,” he said.

就在二零一四年,你自身经理的NIH与中华的国家自然科学基金会(NSFC)宣布共同帮助美中生物管医学协作项目(

Dr. Xu goes a step further. His work at Fudan is a boon for the United
States, he said, because it promotes the transparency and freedom from
government interference that are hallmarks of American research.

因为当局科学基金机构都不负有色金属研商所究经费扶助的切磋所带来的专利或其余智慧产权,珍爱专利、合营时创设分配专利完全不在NIH的总理范围。事实上,30年来,NIH都援救了在炎黄国内的钻研。这几个中华钻探人口本来都有中华夏族民共和国单位的经费。难道你要说这一个商量人士表示海外影响?而且她们有所的文化产权属于其单位,中国和United States的当局财力都不能够具备其知识产权,所以由NIH争知识产权是假意周旋的。绝半数以上商讨并不能够发出很有价值的文化产权。假设个别探讨职员没有填报多重来源,不过是私家瑕疵,你一月12日宣称称那种难题为“国外干涉”完全是节外生枝。

And it takes a small step toward debunking the notion, widespread among
ordinary Chinese and government officials alike, that the United States
is bent on thwarting China’s ascension to global power.

纵然在U.S.A.诞生前,中华人民共和国在经济上超过世界,但在U.S.留存的那几个年中华的经济相对贫困,长期难以担当科学经费。未来中华援救科学,既为中夏族民共和国提升,也为世界做贡献。中国帮衬纯数学和天法学,它们短时间不会给另外国家带来经济便宜,恐怕永远不能够。NIH自身宣称的靶子也不是发出经济回报,那是一个不能够因为情人眼里出施夷光就足以更改的事实。所以,生物医研一般不该带来不一致国度、分歧政坛之间的争执。

“Chinese society is deeply suspicious of the West’s intentions,” Dr. Xu
said. “That’s why some behavior is ultranationalistic. To integrate
China into the international society will be fantastic. It will be great
for the world, great for China — great for everybody.”

您的德性传承

您的学院和学校Virginia大学的创始者汤玛斯·杰斐逊,既是智力商数巨人,也是不管三七二十一的旗手。要是她明天活着,他会为您的扬言或行走击掌吗

您在清华大学的研商导师,来自三个有高大才华的学问,但在天堂际遇本身创制的题指标时候常把他们当作替罪羊。犹太人日常被误伤,时而公开而暴虐,时如蒙有面纱但也狂暴。你7月二十七日的扬言的确针对台湾同胞地医学家,仿佛要在United States反智非理性的大潮中用中华夏族民共和国人代表犹太人做新的替罪羊。

无论同盟照旧竞争,徐立之大学生于一九七六年份在发现囊性纤维化罹患基因的经过中,起了最首要功用,你也为此共享成果。1976年份,中华夏族民共和国还穷,不能提供经济支撑。假诺那在今日时有产生,有恐怕徐硕士也会取得中中原人民共和国的辅助。你会电话要FBI调查他呢?

要是多个经费机构决定都投入财富支撑值得协助的研商,应该欢迎,而不是调查。

简不难单的提出

已逝去的麦肯恩参议员曾说:“笔者希望认为在最辛劳的随时,作者做了对的业务,可是你不能够知道,除非您被考验”。

先天大概是迄今以来对超过三分之二United States地艺术学家最艰难考验的每二八日,越发是对那叁个在CEO职分的人来说。但愿不会变得更困难。

此外愿意充当你6月二十二日提议的谋士委员会之成员的物经济学家,都将染上道德污点。这一委员会应当被遣散。你的信应该撤回。

美利坚同盟国化学家会“做对的思想政治工作”吗?至少不心悦诚服、主动做错的工作?历史将记录米利坚地艺术学家能还是无法经受人格和荣幸的真的考验。

但愿有越多国际同盟

生物文学是拓展国际调换与搭档最不难的领域,因为它与军队非亲非故,而又对全人类有普适价值。

华夏在积极酝酿伊始中华夏族民共和国脑安顿、花旗国NIH已经有脑陈设。中夏族民共和国感兴趣帮衬脑探究的国际同盟,部分原因是推向有益世界各国国民的钻研,部分缘故是当今中夏族民共和国不如从前那么穷之后,努力为人类共同指标付出中中原人民共和国的一分。

在那种转化点,NIH应该吐弃与FBI的同盟、或自降体面地散布“国外干涉”的可怕蜚语,改弦更张,拥抱全数协助生物法学的国家。

中原有悠久欣赏智力进献的观念,但大家的没错没有达成大家相应做的品位。为了成为世界有职务的积极分子,中中原人民共和国于今增强对科学的支撑。应该欢迎全体帮忙科学的国度。假如有竞争,应该如奥运一样。

生物医研的收获为全人类所共享;科学是推向分化国度国民中间相互驾驭的关键桥梁之一。

诚挚的,

饶毅, 理学大学生

北大-IDG/麦戈文脑商讨所教书、所长

北京高校军事学部总经理

法国巴黎脑中央官员

注1:Truth is truth,源自二零一八年6月美利坚合作国管辖的律师RudyGiuliani在承受电视机访谈时称“truth isn’t truth”, 被反驳。

注2:“事实是情人眼里出西施”,认为事实也不是事实,而是因观看者而异。英文“情人眼里出西施”为“beauty
is in the eyes of the beholder”。在平等TV访谈中,Giuliani称“facts are
in the eyes of the beholder”。

注3:Collins本科念维吉妮亚大学,其创始人为United States第1任总统杰斐逊。Collins的硕士导师为巴黎高等交通学院教师、犹太移民后代。Collins最要紧的研究为克隆囊性纤维化(cystic
fibrosis)的罹患基因,这一行事最重庆大学的化学家是香岛旅加拿大唐人学者徐立之,徐后来曾充任香港(Hong Kong)高校校长。

365bet官网 3

Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D.

Director

The National Institutes of Health

Washington, DC

USA

Dear Dr. Collins,

You are highly respected as a scientist who has carried out outstanding
research on genetic mutations underlying human diseases, and as a leader
of the NIH whose mission “is to seek fundamental knowledge about the
nature and behavior of living systems and the application of that
knowledge to enhance health, lengthen life, and reduce illness and
disability”.

NIH is lauded for its contributions to improving the health of
Americans, as well as the health of the humankind. Its tradition and
standards are the heritage of human civilizations, to which ancient
cultures from the Greek, the Indian, and the Chinese have all
contributed.

Intellectual legacy and heritage have been exchanged internationally for
a long time. The West has learned about paper manufacturing, the
compass, the gunpowder, and printing from China. The US has learned much
from Europe.

Scientists with Spines Do Not Bend to Politicians

Your August 20th statement is shocking because it is the first time when
any government official has issued a statement restricting scientific
collaborations in peacetime.

Furthermore, the following, as reported in Scientific American is
appalling: “Collins also wrote to roughly 10,000 NIH grant institutions
encouraging them to set up briefings with FBI field offices about
threats to intellectual property and foreign interference.” No SCIENTIST
in the entire history of humankind has asked FBI equivalents to monitor
“foreign interference”. Some governments have done so, but not at the
initiation of leading scientists or scientists in leadership positions.
Even in the worst times of the Soviet Union, leading scientists had the
spine to do the opposite: the physicist Pyotr Kapitsa rescued his
student Lev Landau when the latter was investigated for anti-Stalin
activities in the peak of Stalin’s power (and terror).

Your letter and your action of encouraging FBI collaborations are thus
extraordinary deviations from the normal practice of science.

You publicly stated a few years ago in Shanghai: science has no national
boundaries because it belongs to the humankind. This was translated and
widely applauded.

Dr. Collins: what you said then is the truth.

Truth is truth. No scientist can bend the truth just because political
leaders or lawyers say otherwise.

The Eternality of Science and the Moral Courage of Scientists

Science is eternal, whereas politics, as the kind practiced in the
present day US, is transient. History has proved that bad politics
perish, as in the cases of the Soviet Union, and Nazi Germany. The
Trumpism US will be an exception only if the Sun rises from the West in
the future.

I am sympathetic that most US scientists, while always taught, and often
self-assumed, to be morally upright, usually do not understand history
and do not know how to deal with political pressures of the evil nature,
such as those in Nazi Germany or the Soviet Union.

Attached please find an article (“The Singular Moral Compass of Otto
Krayer”) about a German pharmacologist, who, while in his early budding
career, refused to take up a chairmanship opened up by Nazi firing of a
Jewish scientist. While he could have accepted the position, without
blaming himself for societal ills, Krayer wrote a letter of refusal,
fully anticipating damages to his own career. He was thereafter barred
from all academic jobs and even the use of libraries in Germany. He had
to leave Germany, not because he was Jewish, but because he stood up for
what was right and against what was wrong.

In the end, Nazism and Stalinism had damaged Germany and Russia the
most. Germany, which was leading in mathematics, physics, chemistry and
your own field of genetics before Hitler, has never been able to regain
its scientific strength to the level reached before Nazism.

History can repeat itself if we do not learn from the past, even if the
past was in other countries.

With Trumpism presently prevalent in the US, it is a testing time for
many Americans including American scientists.

At this point, Trumpism in the US can mainly threaten science with
reduction of budgets, nothing compared to careers ruined or lives
destroyed. If allowed to go on the slippery road, how do we know that
competing labs will not report on each other for foreign interferences
or influences when a large number of students and a significant number
of faculty members are foreign-born Should future discussions of science
be separated into “American” and “Foreign” Should future classrooms,
meeting rooms, etc., be similarly separated Should annual meetings of
academic societies and associations refuse to have “foreign influences”
Should NIH funded domestic and international meetings be monitored by
the FBI

It is time for American scientists to show their spines.

Freedom of Scientists and Their Choices of Support

All scientists have the right to work wherever they choose, and the
freedom to collaborate with whomever they deem appropriate.

Scientific research can be supported by any legitimate funding agency,
most of which are governmental across the entire world. Funding of
individual scientists by multiple sources is not an issue of concern,
even when funding comes from different countries.

As recent as 2015, your own NIH and the National Natural Science
Foundation of China (NSFC) announced the U.S.-China Program for
Biomedical Collaborative Research (R01)
(). So,
the statement in your August 20th letter that “NIH is aware that some
foreign entities have mounted systematic programs to influence NIH
researchers and peer reviewers” is a total lie unless you are implying
that the NIH is an initiating and active partner in such a conspiracy.
This is clearly targeting China because Russia can barely fund its
science, Europe and Japan have not launched any new programs. China has
launched new programs to recruit scientists, regardless of national
origin but most are scientists of Chinese origin because of linguistic
and cultural differences. China has not tried to influence NIH
researchers or peer reviewers. The “Thousand Talent Program” is to
recruit more scientists, not to influence any other country. NIH is
shameless in distorting the truth. Any and every country has the right
to recruitment. The world should welcome more and more countries to
invest in science and support scientists because science serves the
entire world.

Because no government agency for science funding holds patents or other
intellectual properties resulting from research supported by their
grants, it is completely outside the scope of the NIH but in the realm
of institutions to protect their intellectual properties (IP) and to
assign proper rights to the collaborators in cases of collaborations.
NIH has funded researchers in China for more than 30 years. Naturally,
all those supported by the NIH also have grants from Chinese funding
agencies. Are you going to say that all these investigators represent
foreign influences Furthermore, all their IPs belong to their
institutions. It is hypocritical for the NIH to argue about IPs when
neither the Chinese nor the US government funding agencies are involved
in IPs. The vast majority of grants never lead to valuable IPs. If a few
researchers fail to report multiple sources, it is but a small fault of
an individual with minor consequences, which was blown out of proportion
by your August 20th statement as foreign interferences.

China, having led the world economically before the birth of the US, was
relatively poor economically and could not afford to fund science for
most of the time when the US has been in existence. China is now capable
of funding science, both for the development of China and as a
contribution to the world. China funds pure mathematics and astronomy,
which are not expected to generate any economic benefits for any
particular country in a short time, if ever. The stated mission of the
NIH is not to generate economic benefits, either, a fact that should not
change in the eyes of the beholder. Thus funding for most of the
biomedical sciences should not be a source of conflict between different
countries.

Your Conscientious Heritage

Thomas Jefferson, the founder of your alma mater the University of
Virginia, was an intellectual giant, and a champion for freedom. Had he
been alive today, would he applaud your letter or action

Your own research advisor at Yale came from a culture of great talents
which were made scapegoats whenever Westerners run into troubles of
their own making. The Jewish people were often persecuted, sometimes
blatantly and sometimes in a thinly veiled manner. Your August 20th
letter is obviously targeting scientists of Chinese origin, making
Chinese as the new scapegoat of anti-intellectual irrationality in the
US.

Whether collaborating or competing, Dr. Lap-Chee Tsui played an
important role in the success of discovering the cystic fibrosis
susceptibility gene in the 1980s, for which you shared the credit. In
the 1980s, China was poor and could not offer financial support. Had the
same happened today, it is possible that Dr. Tsui would also receive
support from China. Would you call the FBI to investigate him

If funding agencies decide to pool in resources for worthy research,
that should be welcome, not investigated.

Simple Suggestions

The late John McCain once remarked: “I like to think that in the
toughest moments I’d do the right thing, but you never know until you
are tested”.

This is certainly the toughest moment so far for most American
scientists, especially those in leadership positions. One can only wish
that it would not get any tougher.

Any scientist willing to serve on the Advisory Committee stipulated in
your August 10th letter will be morally tainted. The Committee should be
disbanded. The letter should be retracted.

Will leading American scientists do the right thing, or at least not
willingly and proactively do the wrong thing History will remember how
American scientists stand a true test of character and honor.

Hope for More International Collaborations

Because it is not related to the military and because of its universal
values to the humankind, international exchanges and collaborations are
the easiest in the biomedical sciences.

China is actively planning to start the Chinese Brain Initiative. The US
NIH already has a Brain Initiative. China is interested in supporting
international collaborations in brain research, partly to promote
research that will benefit people of all countries, partly as an effort
to pay our share for common goal snow that China is not as poor as
before.

At such junctures, NIH should discard short-sighted collaborations with
the FBI or self-degrading fear-mongering of “foreign interferences”, and
instead embrace efforts by all countries to support biomedical research.

China has a long tradition of valuing intellectual contributions, but
our science has not been as good as it should. To become a responsible
member of the world, China is now increasing its support in the
sciences. All countries should be welcome for their support of science.
If there are competitions, the Olympic Games have shown us how to
compete.

Fruits of biomedical research will be enjoyed by all humans; science
will remain a major bridge of mutual understanding between people of
different countries and cultures.

Sincerely yours,

Yi Rao, Ph.D.

Professor and Director, PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research

Dean, Division of Sciences, Peking University

Director, Chinese Institute for Brain Research, Beijing

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